Hemorrhagic Complications of Anticoagulant Treatment. part 22

Finally, the results of Global Utilization of Streptokinase and t-PA for Occluded Coronary Arteries IIa and the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 9A studies in patients with ischemic coronary syndromes indicated that a 20% increase in the IV heparin dose above the 1,000 U/h that was used in the Global Utilization of Streptokinase and t-PA for Occluded Coronary Arteries I study increased the risk of intracranial bleeding when combined with thrombolytic therapy.

3.1.2 Relationship between risk of bleeding and method of administering heparin

The evidence for a relationship between the risk of bleeding and the method of administering heparin comes from randomized trials in which UFH was either administered by continuous IV infusion with intermittent IV injection, continuous IV heparin with subcutaneous heparin, continuous IV heparin for approximately 10 days with a shorter course (4 to 5 days), continuous IV heparin and oral anticoagulants compared with oral anticoagulants alone, continuous IV heparin administered on a weight-adjusted basis with a standard clinical approach (5,000-U bolus, 1,000 U/h), and continuous IV heparin monitored using either the APTT or monitored using a heparin assay.

In summary, there was an increased rate of major bleeding with intermittent IV heparin compared with continuous IV infusion. Continuous IV heparin caused less bleeding than intermittent IV heparin; continuous IV heparin and subcutaneous heparin were associated with a similar amount of bleeding; and continuous IV heparin for approximately 10 days and 5 days caused a similar amount of bleeding.

3.1.3 Relationship between the risk of bleeding and patient risk factors

There is good evidence that comorbid conditions, particularly recent surgery or trauma, are very important risk factors for heparin-induced bleeding. This association was demonstrated in the study by Hull and associates in patients with proximal vein thrombosis. Patients without clinical risk factors for bleeding were treated with a starting dose of 40,000 U of heparin by continuous infusion, while those with well-recognized risk factors for bleeding (recent surgery, trauma) received a starting dose of 30,000 U. Bleeding occurred in 1 of 88 low-risk patients (1%) who received 40,000 U initially and 12 of 111 high-risk patients (11%) who received 30,000 U.

The concomitant use of aspirin was identified as a risk factor in early retrospective studies and corroborated by Sethi and associates. In their study in patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass surgery, the preoperative use of aspirin caused excessive operative bleeding in patients who receive very high doses of heparin as part of the routine for bypass procedures. Although the concomitant use of aspirin is associated with heparin-induced bleeding, this combination is used frequently in the initial treatment of acute coronary artery syndromes without serious bleeding.

Hemorrhagic Complications of Anticoagulant Treatment. part 21

3.1 Determinants of bleeding

3.1.1 Relationship between risk of bleeding and heparin dose/response

Since the anticoagulant response to heparin (measured by a test of blood coagulation, eg, the activated partial thromboplastin time [APTT]) is influenced by the heparin dose, it was not possible from reported studies to separate the effects of these two variables (dose and laboratory response) on hemorrhagic rates. To our knowledge, there have been no randomized trials in patients with established VTE directly comparing different doses of heparin. In a study evaluating prophylaxis in patients with recent-onset traumatic spinal cord injuries, the incidence of bleeding was significantly greater in patients randomized to receive heparin adjusted to maintain the APTT at 1.5 times control than compared with heparin, 5,000 U bid. The mean dose of heparin for the adjusted-dose regimen was 13,200 U bid. Bleeding occurred in seven adjusted-dose patients compared with none in the fixed-dose group.

Subgroup analysis of randomized trials and prospective cohort studies provide suggestive evidence for an association between the incidence of bleeding and the anticoagulant response. In the Urokinase Pulmonary Embolism Study, bleeding occurred in 20% of patients assigned to heparin in whom whole-blood clotting time was > 60 min, compared to 5% of those whose whole-blood clotting time was < 60 min (relative risk, 4.0). Norman and Provan reported five major bleeds in 10 patients whose APTT was prolonged to more than twice the upper limit of their therapeutic range for at least 50% of their assays, but in only 1 of 40 patients whose APTT remained therapeutic (relative risk, 20.0). Wilson et al described 80 nonsurgical patients receiving heparin monitored by the whole-blood clotting time. Fifty-six percent who received “excessive heparin” bled, whereas only 16% who did not receive excessive heparin bled (relative risk, 3.5). Anand et al examined the relationship between the APTT and bleeding in 5,058 patients with acute coronary syndrome who received IV heparin in the Organization to Assess Strategies for Ischemic Syndromes-2 trial. For every 10-s increase in the APTT, the major bleeding was increased by 7% (p = 0.0004).

Although none of the studies were designed to compare the effects on bleeding of either different doses of heparin or different levels of heparin response, there is a suggestion that bleeding is more likely to occur when an in vitro test of coagulation is prolonged excessively, but this evidence is by no means definitive. In addition, there is good evidence that serious bleeding during heparin treatment can occur when the anticoagulant response is in the therapeutic range.

Hemorrhagic Complications of Anticoagulant Treatment. part 20

There were no major bleeds in the ximelagatran group and one in the warfarin group. In the SPORTIF III trial, 3,407 patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation received ximelagatran, 36 mg bid, or warfarin (INR, 2.0 to 3.0). The rates of major bleeding were 1.3% and 1.8%, respectively. This difference was not statistically significant.

Oral direct thrombin inhibition with ximelagatran at doses of 24 mg, 36 mg, 48 mg, or 60 mg bid plus 160 mg/d of aspirin was compared to 160 mg/d of aspirin alone in a recent multicenter blinded trial for secondary prevention of myocardial infarction. There were 1,883 patients followed up for a 6-month treatment period. The rates of major bleeding did not differ between treatment groups (1% for aspirin alone vs 2% for combined ximelagatran doses), but patients in the combined ximelagatran groups were three times more likely to stop therapy due to bleeding (hazard ratio, 3.35; 95% CI, 1.87 to 6.01). In addition, any bleeding (major and minor) was more frequent in the combined ximelagatran group (22%) compared to the aspirin-alone group (13%) [hazard ratio, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.38 to 2.25].

Ximelagatran has been evaluated for both short-term and long-term treatment of VTE (Thrombin Inhibitors in Venous Thromboembolism studies). In the shortterm treatment study, 2,491 patients with acute DVT were treated for 6 months with ximelagatran, 36 mg bid, or LMWH followed by vitamin K antagonist therapy (INR, 2.0    to 3.0), using a blinded design. An “on-treatment” analysis suggested less major bleeding with ximelagatran (1.3% vs 2.2%; 95% CI for difference, -2.0 to + 0.2%); intention-to-treat analyses have not been reported for bleeding.

In a long-term treatment study, 18 months of ximel-agatran, 24 mg bid, was compared with placebo in 1,224 patients with DVT or pulmonary embolism who had completed 6 months of initial treatment with vitamin K antagonists. There was no apparent increase of major bleeding with ximelagatran (0.7%/yr; hazard ratio, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.4 to 3.8).

3.0    Heparins

Heparin is usually administered in low doses by subcutaneous injection to prevent venous thrombosis (prophylactic heparin), in higher doses to treat patients with acute VTE or with acute coronary syndromes (therapeutic heparin), and in very high doses in patients during open-heart surgery. In this chapter, we will discuss only bleeding associated with therapeutic heparin (see the chapter by Geerts et al for a discussion of bleeding associated with prophylactic heparin). Heparin has the potential to induce bleeding by inhibiting blood coagulation, by impairing platelet function, and by increasing capillary permeabil-ity. Heparin can also produce thrombocytopenia, but this is rarely an important cause of bleeding.

The Relationship of Asthma Impairment Determined by Psychometric Tools to Future Asthma Exacerbations

Methods: Two thousand six hundred eighty patients with persistent asthma completed a survey that included the Asthma Control Test (ACT), mini-Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (mAQLQ), and Asthma Impact Survey (AIS-6), as well as a history of exacerbations in the prior 12 months. An exploratory factor analysis was performed using the questions of the three tools, and individual patient factor scores were calculated. Independent relationships between predictors (tools and factors) and exacerbations the following year captured from administrative data were evaluated.

Results: Each tool was significantly related (P < .0001) to future exacerbations above and beyond the risk conferred by prior exacerbations (relative risk [RR] = 1.3). When prior exacerbations were included in the model, the three impairment tools provided similar and overlapping information, such that only the mAQLQ entered the model (RR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5). Factor analysis revealed three factors (symptoms, activity, and bother) that were each significantly associated (P < .0001) with future asthma exacerbations. However, only the activity factor was independently related to future exacerbations.

Conclusions: Asthma impairment is significantly related to the risk of future exacerbations, but the ACT, mAQLQ, and AIS-6 do not provide independent information from each other in this regard. Interference with activities is the primary subjective component of asthma impairment that is related to the risk of future exacerbations.

Abbreviations: ACT = Asthma Control Test; AIS-6 = Asthma Impact Survey; mAQLQ = mini-Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire; PPV = positive predictive value

Asthma causes a spectrum of morbidity, ranging from symptoms to functional impairment to exacerbations. Factor analysis studies have suggested that asthma exacerbations represent a separate dimension from symptoms, quality of life, and pulmonary function. Partly in response to these data, the new National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Expert Panel 3 guidelines divide asthma severity and control into two domains: impairment and risk.

Long-term Disease-Free Survival of a Patient With Synchronous Bilateral Lung Adenocarcinoma Displaying Different EGFR and C-MYC Molecular Characteristics

The second interaction to consider is the potential effect of the airway edema on subsequent bronchoconstriction. Thickening of the airway wall has been hypothesized to be one of the mechanisms contributing to airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. Acute changes in thickness can occur from inflammation or from local edema caused by vascular leakage in the wall. Such acute airway wall thickening secondary to edema formation has been proposed as a possible cause of wheezing in patients with congestive heart disease in left ventricular failure. As the heart failure improves, pulmonary function also improves. Although it cannot be ruled out that airway edema led to bronchocon-striction, given the clinical scenario it remains more likely that in this case the bronchoconstriction indeed came first, perhaps even generating a “downward spiral” of edema, airway narrowing, and bronchoconstriction.

The main difficulty with multiple lung tumors is distinguishing synchronous and metachronous lesions from second independent primary tumors, particularly when dealing with the same histologic type. Challenging diagnostic hurdles may explain, at least in part, the extremely variable (0%-79%) 5-year survival rate. We present a case report of a patient with synchronous primary adenocarcinoma treated with surgery that exhibited different EGFR gene status, with an exon 19 mutation in the adenocarcinoma of the left upper lobe that was absent in the right upper lobe. Further, specific EGFR and C-MYC amplification events were associated only with the EGFR-mutated lesion. According to an independent evolution theory, these events were classified as early stage, and the patient is still alive and free of disease 70 months after surgery. Molecular evaluation was an important tool to support the diagnosis of synchronous primary adenocarcinoma, which had not been possible with the application of Martini-Melamed criteria.

Background: Impairment and risk are considered separate domains of asthma control, but relationships between them are not completely understood. We compared three validated questionnaires reflecting asthma impairment in their ability to predict future exacerbations.

We suspect that NPPE after bronchospasm may occur more frequently

Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation was started with 6 cm H2O of pressure support over 8 cm H2O of positive end expiratory pressure. Consequently, the patient rapidly improved in the PACU, and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation was terminated after 5 h. The following morning the patient was transferred to the gynecology ward and went on to make a full recovery over the next 24 h.


We suspect that NPPE after bronchospasm may occur more frequently than reported but goes unrecognized because pulmonary edema after bronchospasm can often be attributed to other factors, such as aspiration, volume overload, or atelectasis. Many patients require oxygen therapy in the PACU, chest radiographs are not routinely obtained, and often NPPE resolves quickly with conservative measures.

The interaction between airway edema and bronchocon-striction raises many issues. The first is whether broncho-constriction could be the root cause of the NPPE. There have been a few theories as to this possibility. Large negative pleural pressures have been measured in children with acute asthma, and this has been shown to be correlated with fluid accumulation in the lungs of dogs. However, asthma is a very heterogeneous disease and bronchoconstric-tion is not uniform in either location or extent. It is possible to close even large central cartilaginous airways with a large enough stimulus, but whether this can happen under clinical conditions is unclear. Although narrowing of large airways occurs in asthma, it is generally believed that it is the additional closure of hundreds or even thousands of small airways leading to air trapping and hyperinflation that causes the clinical signs and symptoms of asthma (Fig 2).

This patient had severe pulmonary disease, a recent decrease in her oral steroid dose, and significant stimulation of her trachea during extubation. This constellation of events could have lead to significant conducting airway narrowing with inadequate airflow during strong inspiratory efforts, leading to the resultant NPPE. A mucus plug could be another inciting factor for the development of her NPPE.

Erectile Dysfunction: The Cause

Erectile dysfunction is characterized by mans inability to respond to sexual stimulation and achieve and sustain an erection. Because the male sexual arousal system is quite complex and involves several areas of the human body, including blood vessels, muscles, nerves, the brain and a variety of hormones, erectile dysfunction will happen if one of the elements fails or malfunctions. Mental health and issues of stress problems will also result in erectile dysfunction. A combination of psychological issues can also cause men to experience erectile dysfunction.

A physical problem, no matter how minor in nature, may slow sexual response and cause anxiety about maintaining an erection. The result could possibly be performance anxiety and the onset or worsening of erectile dysfunction.
The most common reasons of erectile dysfunction includes hardening of the arteries, or atherosclerosis, an assortment of metabolic syndromes, diabetes, obesity, high cholesterol, hypertension, or high blood pressure and heart disease Cialis Australia. Metabolic syndromes are conditions that involve high insulin levels, high blood pressure and high body fat around the waist.

There are other causes of erectile dysfunction and include injuries effecting the spinal cord and pelvic areas, treatment for prostate cancer, substance abuse, alcohol, smoking, prescription medications, low testosterone levels, Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease.

Aging will sometimes take its toll on a man’s ability to achieve and sustain an erection. It may take longer to generate an erection and it may not be as firm as it was when younger. Achieving an erection may require more direct touching and that isn’t necessarily a result of aging, but it might be the result of an underlying medical condition.
Heart disease and diabetes are at the top of the list of contributing factors of erectile dysfunction. Smoking works to constrict arteries and diminishes the blood flow and the result is less blood flow to the penis. Smoking also leads to other health problems such as heart disease which can also lead to erectile dysfunction.

Body weight is also a contributing factor to erectile dysfunction, especially for men who may be characterized as obese. Radiation treatment for cancer or prostate surgery is also contributing factors, along with injuries that may damage the nerves that control erections.

Prescription medications such as treatments for high blood pressure, pain or prostate cancer, the use of antidepressants and antihistamines will also render an erection useless very quickly and long term use of these medications could lead to long term and serious erectile dysfunction.

Men should always keep in mind there are many reasons for erectile dysfunction and it is always wise to rule out health and psychological conditions before beginning an erectile dysfunction regime. Ignoring potential health problems will only make matters worse. Even though sometimes the side effects of a medication will help a health problem such as high blood pressure, it will not necessarily address the root cause of the issue.
It is important to always use erectile medication as directed. Using more of the medication at a time will sometimes have the opposite effect rather than helping the situation.

Herbal Viagra Australia: Safer And As Effective

It goes without saying that one can help taking a drug instead of using herbs, one would certainly skip the intake of a chemistry-empowered product in favour of the one offered by Mother Nature itself.

We are now talking about Herbal Viagra. Is it even possible to have it in herbal version? You bet. Since pharmacology has been using the extracts of herbs and other natural ingredients since the day pharmacology itself was invented to begin with. The only difference between a herb in its raw condition and a herb rolled in pill, smartly packed and labelled is the quantity of the medicinal substance.

Pharmaceutical manufacturers use extracts, which are concentrated herb juice in essence. While classical Viagra by Pfizer is based on completely synthetic  canadian sildenafil citrate , Herbal Viagra, as the name implies, contains nothing but the extracts of herbs.

The pros and cons are self-obvious: you do not get as many side effects as you do with the traditional Viagra, but the medicinal action is less obvious as well and it varies greatly from patient to patient. If Herbal Viagra works for you, you are lucky – Herbal Viagra in Australia costs ten times less than Viagra by Pfizer, and you do not need to expose your liver, heart and other vitals to the side effects of sildenafil citrate, which are not many, but still good to avoid.

Herbal Viagra remains efficient during a much longer period of time, and in the long run it can be good for your health in more ways than just retrieving your ability to achieve and maintain erection.

Sometimes Maku is called natural Peruvian Viagra natural, which has long been known as a means of increasing strength, energy, stamina, and helps to preserve sexual function in men in different periods of life. Muira Puama is a South American plant containing resin, which is a potent central nervous system stimulant and increases libido. In Brazil, this plant is called ”Wil-Saw-Ata”-”what makes soft solid”. Muira Puama is used to treat impotence and decreased libido, combat stress, stimulating the central nervous system and general health. Yohimbe bark extract has a tonic effect on the central nervous system neurons, sleeping pills and neutralizes the inhibitory effect of certain substances, stimulates the spinal centers of erection, increases blood flow to the erectile tissues of the penis, causing an aggravation of sexual sensations. The main pharmacological characteristic of ginseng is its tonic effect on the CNS. Ginseng has a positive effect on the mental and physical ability of the person.

There are also two herbs that revitalize the body as a whole. Ginger is a tonic that improves digestion and boosts immunity. The optimum percentage of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and vitamins B makes oats indispensable remedy. Oats has a tonic, restorative effect.

Consult your doctor before taking either Herbal Viagra Australia or traditional Viagra.

Viagra Australia – Food Interaction

Grapefruit is a healthy alternative to add to any diet. It adds Vitamin C, potassium and fiber, along with a variety of other nutrients. Grapefruit, for all its healthiness, has the potential to interact negatively with medications and drugs and can cause a dangerous reaction in the human body. Viagra or Cialis in Australia online is one of those medications that can have a dangerous interaction with grapefruit.

Men taking Viagra, or the chemical name of sildenafil, should avoid consuming large amounts of grapefruit or grapefruit juice. Men should consult a doctor before increasing or decreasing the amount of grapefruit products in their diet.

Grapefruit will cause a change in the absorption rate of Viagra for 24 hours. Grapefruit in the small intestine will prevent the proper breakdown of Viagra and when the Viagra is absorbed into the system, it is in larger quantities. The larger quantities can reach toxic levels.

The mixture of grapefruit juice and Viagra Australia will also lower blood pressure and cause men to have hot flashes. Some men have reported they experience dizziness, nausea, pain numbness or tingling in the chest, jaw, arm and neck. Men are advised against taking Viagra should not be taken on the same day as consuming grapefruit.

Some men have resorted to mixing 1/8 of a Viagra pill with grapefruit juice and despite medical opinion not to engage in such a practice, men report the mixture is just as effective as a whole pill without the grapefruit juice.

It is not known exactly what chemical in grapefruit is responsible for the potentially dangerous, but furanocoumarin is high on the list of suspected chemicals. This particular chemical has the ability to bind to an enzyme CYP3A4. When this particular enzyme is blocked, the oral medication passes through the digestive system into the blood stream quicker and leads to a higher concentration of the drug being absorbed into the blood stream.

The reaction of the grapefruit and the Viagra will lower blood pressure, and in some cases blood pressure will be lowered to dangerous levels, while boosting the levels of Viagra into the blood stream. That is a dangerous combination that will cause severe side effects.

It does not take a lot of grapefruit to cause an adverse reaction. It can be as little as an 8 ounce glass of grapefruit juice. The effects of the grapefruit juice takes a long time, 24 to 72 hours, to wear off. Men should avoid consuming grapefruit while taking Viagra Australia pills.

Viagra Super Active

Viagra Super Active is the newest edition to the family of erectile dysfunction drugs based on sildenafil citrate. As the name of the drug suggests, Viagra Super Active has a shorter onset period of just 15 minutes, with the efficiency remaining for up to 6 hours.

The main medicinal component of Viagra Super Active is sildenafil citrate, a PDE5 inhibitor which blocks the said phosphodiesterase type 5 and thus prevents hormonal signals of the sexual act termination. This sets a perfect physiological scene for a natural erection to take place upon a relevant sexual stimulation.

There is a separate category of customers who buy Viagra Super Active in Australia for financial reasons. Viagra Super Active features the same formula and the same components of the original pill, but with an enhanced formula. As a result, we expect the same effect but which manifests itself much faster. Viagra was developed with the aim of helping men after taking a pill. To achieve the effect you may need to wait 30 to 60 minutes.

Viagra Super Active is even faster and customers are pleased to obtain a result within 10 to 15 minutes. Nothing will ruin the spontaneity of sex, when drugs can boast such features! Sometimes there is however  a delay which is the fault of the menu. For example, the dinner with high fat content can inhibit the absorption of the drug. So you should know when you plan a romantic dinner. But overall the situation is not so horrible. The drug continues to work, but it takes longer to get the effect.

 The side effects of Viagra Super Active are the same as those of classical Viagra by Pfizer. Be careful if you do another concomitant treatment. Even if you have purchased Viagra in Australia without prescription in the past you should seek the advice of your doctor.